The Different Forms of Co-Ownership in Real Estate in California: Exploring Options for Investors and Homeowners


Co-ownership, also known as co-ownership, cotenancy or concurrent ownership, is a popular option in the California real estate market. It allows multiple people to pool their resources and share ownership of real estate. This form of ownership offers significant advantages for both investors and owners, but it is essential to understand the different arrangements available and their legal implications before embarking on co-ownership.

Joint Tenancy

In this form, all co-owners have an equal interest in the property and have the same possession rights. When a co-owner dies, his or her interest automatically passes to the other co-owners, avoiding the need to go through the probate process. Joint tenancy also offers the advantage of avoiding inheritance taxes, as the property passes directly to the surviving joint owners. (The main difference between Joint Tenancy and Tenancy in Common is the RIGHT OF SURVIVORSHIP). It is ALWAYS the same amount/percentage (equal share, e.g. 50%-50%), something that does not happen with Tenancy in Common, which can be 20%-80%. A Joint Tenancy that is divided becomes “tenancy in common.” Must include:

  • Unity of possession
  • Unity of time
  • Unity of title

Tenancy in Common

This form of co-ownership allows owners to have unequal ownership percentages (an example is “Time-share”). Each co-owner has the right to sell or transfer his or her interest in the property without the consent of the others. Unlike joint tenancy, there is no right of survivorship, which means that when a co-owner dies, their interest in the property passes to their designated heirs. Must include “unity of possession”. Taxes, expenses and insurance must be shared between the co-owners). It can be terminated by “partition”.

Community Property (Community Property or Tenancy by the Entirety)

This type of co-ownership generally applies to married couples. Under community property, each spouse has an equal share in property acquired during the marriage. If one spouse dies, their interest in the property passes to the surviving spouse. Community property offers tax benefits for married couples by allowing them to divide income and deductions equally. (Like Joint Tenancy, COMMUNITY PROPERTY includes the RIGHT OF SURVIVORSHIP). COMMUNITY PROPERTY = MARRIED COUPLES

Property acquired by the husband and/or wife during the marriage, when not acquired as separate property of either spouse, is known as “Community Property.”

Real Estate Trust

A real estate trust is a popular option for those who want maintain privacy and avoid the probate process. In this type of co-ownership, the owners transfer the property to a trust and appoint a trustee to manage the real estate. Benefits include avoiding probate and maintaining control over property in the event of incapacity.

Tenancy in Partnership

To avoid any confusion, let's compare both terms:

Partnership – Several people form a joint entity to conduct business together. In a Partnership, partners share the responsibility and benefits of business operations on an ongoing basis.

Joint Venture (JV) – Each party works under its own entity. Partners in a joint venture only work together on a specific agreement or project. In a JV, the parties temporarily collaborate to achieve a common goal or project, but do not merge into a continuous business entity.

LLC (Limited Liability Company)

An LLC is a separate legal entity that offers its members limited liability protection, meaning that their personal assets are separate from the assets of the LLC. It is the most used form for a Joint Venture, but it can also be used for a long-term Partnership.

Forming an LLC can be an attractive option for those investors who wish to share ownership of a property while limiting their exposure to personal liability. This can be especially useful in situations where the property may be subject to legal or financial risks, such as third-party lawsuits or debt problems.

When establishing an LLC for co-ownership of real estate, members must draft an operating agreement that defines the terms and conditions of the partnership. This agreement should include details about the distribution of profits and losses, each member's financial responsibilities, and operational decisions.

It is essential that LLC members work with legal and financial advisors to ensure that the operating agreement is sound and that all parties involved understand their rights and obligations. This will help prevent future conflicts and ensure harmonious collaboration between LLC members.

Corporations and Associations

In addition to LLCs, some people also choose to form corporations or partnerships to jointly own real estate. As with LLCs, establishing a corporation or partnership can offer benefits in terms of liability and ownership structure.

Corporations are independent legal entities that offer limited liability protection to their shareholders. By forming a corporation for joint ownership of real estate, the shareholders share ownership of the corporation and, in turn, ownership of the corporation's assets, including real estate.

On the other hand, associations are a form of co-ownership in which two or more people join together to acquire real estate. Partnerships can take different forms, such as general partnerships or limited partnerships. In a general partnership, all partners share unlimited liability for the debts and obligations of the partnership. In a limited partnership, some partners have limited liability, meaning their financial exposure is restricted to their investment in the partnership.

As with LLCs, it is essential that corporations and partnerships have clear and defined agreements that address issues such as profit distribution, operational decisions, and conflict resolution. Additionally, working with legal and financial advisors can be beneficial to ensure that all legal requirements are met and that co-ownership is handled appropriately and effectively.

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)

A business trust primarily concerned with interests in real estate, usually organized to comply with the Internal Revenue Code. REITs are investment vehicles that allow investors to participate in the real estate market without having to purchase properties directly. When investing in shares of a REIT, investors benefit from income generated by rental and appreciation of the value of the properties owned by the REIT. It must include at least 100 investors.


Five or more units where the owner has an absolute interest in the airspace. A popular co-ownership option in real estate, especially in apartment buildings. In a condominium, the owner has a ownership interest in the airspace or four walls of the unit where you live or occupy. In addition, the owners share ownership of common areas such as parking lots, swimming pools and gardens. The community of owners (all the tenants) owns the common areas as tenants in common. Condominiums offer a mix of individual and shared ownership, providing benefits such as access to shared amenities and shared maintenance of common areas.


A type of co-ownership commonly known as a “share cooperative” (“stock cooperative“). In this approach, an apartment building is owned by a corporation, and tenants purchase shares in the corporation that give them the right to occupy a specific unit in the building (they buy stock in the corporation). In California, this type of ownership is known as a “stock cooperative” but it is not very common here. Owners, rather than holding individual title to the property, are shareholders in the corporation and, in exchange, are granted the right to live in a unit based on their ownership interest. Co-ops can offer a more affordable way to access housing, but they can also have stricter rules and regulations for owners. It is usually done for tax reasons.


A partnership organized for participation in a real estate venture. Partners can have limited or unlimited liability in the company. Syndicates are common in larger investments or commercial real estate projects where multiple investors come together to share the risk and rewards of an investment. Each partner contributes capital to finance the project and shares the profits according to the established agreement.

These partnership holding options offer different approaches for investors interested in the California real estate market. It is essential to understand the pros and cons of each option and evaluate how they align with your financial goals and preferences before making investment decisions.

Important considerations

Before embarking on co-ownership, it is essential to take into account some key considerations:

1. Co-ownership Agreement: It is essential to draft a co-ownership agreement that establishes the rights and responsibilities of each co-owner. This agreement should address issues such as property management, distribution of expenses, the right to sell and transfer interests, and conflict management.

2. Financial Responsibilities: Each co-owner must be willing and able to meet his or her financial obligations. It is important to have a clear plan for paying expenses such as taxes, insurance, maintenance and repairs.

3. Departure and Dissolution: In the event that a co-owner wishes to exit the co-ownership, it is essential to have a plan to dissolve the partnership in a fair and equitable manner. This may involve the sale of the property or the purchase of the outgoing co-owner's interest by others.

4. Tax and Legal Implications: Each form of co-ownership has different tax and legal implications. It is advisable to consult a real estate professional and legal counsel to fully understand the legal and tax aspects involved.


Co-ownership in real estate offers an exciting opportunity to share ownership and financial benefits with others. However, it is essential to understand the different forms of co-ownership available in California and their legal and financial implications before making a decision.

Before embarking on co-ownership, it is advisable to carefully evaluate your financial objectives, your risk tolerance, and your relationship with the other co-owners. A clear and well-drafted co-ownership agreement is essential to setting expectations and avoiding conflicts in the future.

Additionally, seeking the advice of real estate professionals and legal advisors can provide valuable guidance throughout the co-ownership process. These experts can help you understand the tax and legal implications, evaluate the viability of the investment, and ensure you are making informed and informed decisions.

When considering a co-ownership in real estate, it is important to remember that collaboration and open communication are key to long-term success. Working with other co-owners in a transparent and efficient manner can help maximize the potential of the investment and minimize the associated risks.

Ultimately, co-ownership in real estate can be a great way to diversify your investment portfolio and achieve your financial goals. By making informed decisions, planning ahead, and seeking the right guidance, you can make the most of this form of investment and enjoy the benefits that the California real estate market has to offer. Good luck on your co-ownership journey and success in your future real estate investments!

Legal and Tax Disclaimer

Please be advised that the content presented in this blog is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. The articles and information provided here are written from the perspective of a real estate agent affiliated with Keller Williams, and do not represent legal or tax counsel.

As the author, I am a licensed real estate professional under Keller Williams, holding Brokerage DRE License Number: #02197031. However, it is important to note that my expertise is in the field of real estate, and not in legal or tax matters. The insights and opinions shared on this blog are based on my experiences and knowledge in the real estate industry and should be treated as general guidance rather than definitive legal or tax advice.

For specific legal or tax concerns relating to any real estate transactions or investments, readers are strongly encouraged to consult with a qualified attorney or tax advisor who can provide tailored advice based on your individual circumstances and the latest legal and regulatory requirements.

The information on this blog is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind, and I, along with Keller Williams and its affiliates, disclaim all liability for any loss, damage, or misunderstanding arising from reliance on the information contained herein.

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